Plus Two Focus-Area Syllabus Important Portions | Keralanotes

Kerala Plus Two Focus-Area Syllabus PDF download  | Keralanotes

The complete PDF of the HSE Plus two Focus Area syllabus. The syllabus is the detailed study material for the courses offered under Higher Secondary subject and the plus two focus areas as well. The examination conducted by the Kerala State Higher Secondary Education Board (Kerala Syllabus) is in these subjects in which students have to study a lot thoroughly and intensely, and the knowledge thus gained has to be passed on to one's parents and teachers. This syllabus has been designed considering it all. As per this syllabus, there is a need for a lot of study and practice.

Plus Two Focus Area Syllabus(toc)

Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two ( Science ) Focus Area 

The Kerala High School Board and SCERT have selected certain areas to focus on preparing students for the Plus Two exam. As the schools do not operate in the current academic year and the classes are conducted entirely on the online platform, the students are struggling to cope with the entire elements assigned for the upcoming examination on the High Board. So to make things easy the government chose some areas as centralized areas and for the next study, 90% of questions are expected to come from the selected topics in each chapter.

Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - English

Lesson Focus Area
1 The 3Ls of Empowerment (Speech)
2 Any Woman (Poem)
3 Matchbox (Story)
4 Horegallu (Anecdote)
5 Mending Wall [Poem]
6 The Hour of Truth [One Act Play]
7 A Three-Wheeled Revolution [ Interview ]
8 Rice (Poem)
9 Dangers of Drug Abuse [ Essay]

Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Hindi

Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus area Hindi Important Portion, Notes, previous year solved questions

Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Malayalam

Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus area Malayalam Important Portion, Notes, previous year solved questions


Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Physics

Electric Charges and Fields 1.2 Electric Charge
1.5 Basic Properties of Charge
1.6 Coulomb’s Law
1.8 Electric Field
1.9 Electric Field Lines
1.10 Electric Flux
1.11 Electric Dipole
1.14 Gauss’s Law
1.15 Applications of Gauss’s Law
Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance 2.2 Electrostatic Potential 2.3 Potential Due to a Point Charge 2.6 Equipotential Surfaces 2.11 Capacitors and Capacitance 2.12 The Parallel Plate Capacitor 2.14 Combination of Capacitors 2.15 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
CURRENT ELECTRICITY 3.4 OHM ‘S LAW
3.9 ELECTRICAL ENERGY, POWER
3.10 COMBINATION OF RESISTORS-SERIES AND PARALLEL
3.11 CELLS, EMF, INTERNAL RESISTANCE
3.13 KIRCHHOFF’S RULES
3.14 WHEATSTONE BRIDGE
3.15 METER BRIDGE
3.16 POTENTIOMETER
MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNETISM 4.2 MAGNETIC FORCE
4.5 MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT ELEMENT, BIOT -SAVART LAW
4.6 MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE AXIS OF A CIRCULAR CURRENT LOOP
4.7 AMPERE’S CIRCUITAL LAW
4.8 THE SOLENOID AND THE TOROID
MAGNETISM AND MATTER 5.3 MAGNETISM AND GAUSS’S LAW
5.4 THE EARTH’S MAGNETISM
5.5 MAGNETISATION AND MAGNETIC INTENSITY
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 6.4 FARADAY’S LAW OF INDUCTION
6.6 MOTIONAL ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE
6.8 EDDY CURRENTS
6.10 AC GENERATOR
ALTERNATING CURRENT 7.2 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A RESISTOR
7.3 REPRESENTATION OF AC CURRENT AND VOLTAGE BY ROTATING VECTORS-PHASORS
7.4 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO AN INDUCTOR
7.5 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A CAPACITOR
7.9 TRANSFORMERS
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 8.2 DISPLACEMENT CURRENT
8.3 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE
RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 9.2 REFLECTION OF LIGHT BY SPHERICAL MIRRORS
9.3 REFRACTION
9.5 REFRACTION AT SPHERICAL SURFACES AND BY LENSES
9.6 REFRACTION THROUGH A PRISM
WAVE OPTICS 10.2 HUYGENS PRINCIPLE
10.3 REFRACTION AND REFLECTION OF PLANE WAVES USING HUYGENS PRINCIPLE
10.7 POLARISATION
DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER 11.3 PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
11.6 EINSTEIN’ S PHOTOELECTRIC EQUATION: ENERGY QUANTUM OF RADIATION
11.7 PARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT: THE PHOTON
ATOMS 12.4 BOHR MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM
12.6 DE BROGLIE’S EXPLANATION OF BOHR’S SECOND POSTULATE OF QUANTISATION
NUCLEI 13.6 RADIOACTIVITY
13.7 NUCLEAR ENERGY
SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS: MATERIALS, DEVICES AND SIMPLE CIRCUITS 14.7 APPLICATION OF JUNCTION DIODE AS A RECTIFIER
14.9 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND LOGIC GATES


Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Chemistry

Name of Chapter Focus Area
The solid-state 1.2 Amorphous and crystalline solids
1.4 Crystal lattices and unit cells
1.5 Number of atoms in a unit cell
1. 6 Close packed structures
1.9 Imperfections in solids
1.10 Electrical properties
1.11 Magnetic properties
Solutions 2. 3. 2 Solubility of gas in liquids
4 Vapour pressure of liquid solutions
2.5 Ideal and non-ideal solutions
2.6 Colligative properties and determination of molar mass
Electrochemistry 3.3 Nernst equation
3. 4. 2. Variation of conductivity and molar conductivity with
concentration
3.6 Batteries
3.7 Fuel cells
3.8 Corrosion
Chemical kinetics 4. 2 Factors influencing the rate of a reaction
4.3.2 First order reactions and their half-life period
4.4 Pseudo first-order reaction
4.5 Temperature dependence of the rate of reaction- Arrhenius
equation
Surface chemistry 5.1 Adsorption
5.2 Catalysis
5.4 Classification of colloids
5.5 Emulsions
General principles and
Process of Isolation of elements –
6.2 Concentration of ores
6.3 Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore elements
6.4. 1 Ellingham diagram – extraction of Iron
6.5 Hall Heroult process (extraction of Al) 6. 7 Refining
The P-block elements 7.3 Ammonia
7.5 Nitric acid
7.8 Phosphorus halides
7.17 Sulfuric acid
7. 22 Inter halogen compounds
7.23 Group 18 elements- Xenon halides
The d-and f-block elements 8.3 Magnetic properties, formation coloured ions, formation complexes, catalytic property
8.4 Potassium permanganate and potassium dichromate
8.5.2 Atomic and ionic sizes
8.7 Some applications of d- and f-block elements
Coordination compounds 9.3 Nomenclature of coordination compounds
9.4 Isomerism in coordination compounds
9.5.2 Magnetic properties of coordination compounds
9.8 Importance and applications of coordination compounds
Haloalkanes and haloarenes 10.4.1 Preparation from alcohols
10.4.2 Preparation from hydrocarbons
10.6.1 Reactions of haloalkanes (Nucleophilic substitution)
10.6.2 Reactions of haloarenes (Electrophilic substitution)
10.7.2 Trichloro methane
Alcohols, phenols and ethers 11.4.1 Preparation of alcohols( from alkenes, carbonyl compounds and Grignard reagent
11.4.2 Preparation of phenol (from haloarenes and diazonium salts)
11.4.4 Chemical reactions (Lucas test, dehydration, nitration of phenol. Reimer Tiemann reaction)
11.5 Commercially important alcohols- ethanol
11.6.1 Preparation of ethers-Williamson synthesis
11.6.3 Chemical reactions (Friedel Crafts reaction)
Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids 12.2 Preparation of aldehydes and ketones ( By oxidation of alcohols, by deHydrogenation of alcohols, Rosenmund reduction, Etard reaction, Gatterman-Koch reaction, Friedel Craft’s reaction)
12.4 Chemical reactions (Reduction, Oxidation, Aldol reaction, Cannizzaro reaction)
12.7 Preparation of Carboxylic acid (from aldehydes and ketones, from alkyl benzene)
12.9 Chemical reactions (acidity, reaction with ammonia, Kolbe electrolysis, Hell-Volhard Zelinsky reaction. Ring substitution)
Amines 13.4 Preparation of amines (Reduction of nitriles, amides, Hoffmann Bromamide reaction)
13.6 Chemical reactions ( carbylamine reaction, Ilinsbergtest. Electrophilic substitution)
13.9 Chemical reactions of diazonium salts- sandmaeyer reaction, the coupling reaction
Biomolecules 14.1.1 Classification of carbohydrates
14.1.2 Monosaccharides (Preparation of glucose from sucrose)
14.1.3 Disaccharides (glycosidic linkage, invert sugar)
14.1.4 Starch, glycogen
14.2.4 Denaturation of protein
14.5.1 Chemical composition of nucleic acids
Polymers 15.1 Classification of polymers
Addition and condensation polymers ( Teflon, Nylon6,6, Nylon 6, PVC, polystyrene, Polyethene)
15.2.4 Rubber ( Natural rubber, vulcanisation)
15.4 Biodegradable polymers
Chemistry in Everyday life 16.3.1 Antacid
16.3.3 Neurologically active drugs
16.3.4 Antimicrobials( antiseptics, disinfectants)


Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Maths

Chapter Focus area
RELATIONS AND
FUNCTIONS
1.3 Types of Functions
1.4 Composition of Functions and Invertible Function
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 2.3 Properties of Inverse Trigonometric
Functions
MATRICES 3.2 Matrix
3.3 Types of Matrices
3.4 Operations on Matrices
3.5 Transpose of a Matrix
3.6 Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices
DETERMINANTS 4.2 Determinant
4.5 Minors and Cofactors
4.6 Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix
4.7 Applications of Determinants and Matrices
CONTINUITY AND
DIFFERENTIABILITY
5.2 Continuity
5.3 Differentiability
5.8 Mean Value Theorem
APPLICATION OF
DERIVATIVES
6.2 Rate of Change of Quantities
6.3 Increasing and Decreasing Functions
6.4 Tangents and Normals
INTEGRALS 7.3.1 integration by substitution
7.4 Integrals of Some Particular Functions
7.9 Evaluation of Definite Integrals by Substitution
APPLICATION OF
INTEGRALS
8.2 Area under Simple Curves
DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS
9.2 Basic Concepts
9.5.1 Differential equations with variables
separable
VECTOR ALGEBRA 10.4 Addition of Vectors
10.5 Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
10.6 Product of Two Vectors
THREE DIMENSIONAL
GEOMETRY
11.3 Equation of a Line in Space
11.5.1 Distance between skew lines
11.6.2 Equation of a plane perpendicular to a
given vector and passing through a given point
11.6.3 Equation of a plane passing through three non-collinear points
LINEAR
PROGRAMMING
12.2.2 Graphical method of solving linear
programming problems
PROBABILITY 13.2 Conditional Probability
13.4 independent Events


Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Botany

Name of Chapter Focus Area
Reproduction in organisms 1.1. Asexual reproduction
1.2.1. Gametogenesis
1.2.2. Fertilisation.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants 2.2.1 . Structure of microsporangium. Structure of pollen grain
2.2.2. Megasporangium-structure, megasporogenesis, Female gametophyte
2.2.3. Pollination-Classification based on the source of pollen (Autogamy, geitonogamy and xenogamy) and agents of pollination (wind, water and insects -peculiarities with examples) and artificial hybridisation
2.3. Double fertilisation
2.4.2. Embryo- structure
2.4.3. False fruit, True fruit and Parthenocarpic fruit
Strategies for enhancement in food production 9.1.1. Dairy farm management
9.1.3. Beekeeping
9.2. Plant breeding- main steps
9.2.4. Plant breeding for improved food quality
9.3 S.C.P
9.4.Tissue culture
Biotechnology- Principles and processes 11.2. Tools of recombinant DNA technology 11.2.1.Restriction enzymes, Gel electrophoresis.
11.3 . Processes of rDNA technology
11.3.3. Amplification of gene of interest using PCR, 11.3.5.Obtaining the foreign gene product
Biotechnology and its applications 12.1. Biotechnological applications in agriculture-Uses of GMOs and Bt cotton
12.2.1. Genetically engineered insulin.
12.2.2. Gene therapy
Organisms and Populations 13 1.3. Adaptations -In organisms of deserts, polar regions and high altitudes
13.2.1 Population attributes- Age pyramids and population density
13.2.2. Population growth (Up to population growth equation)
13.2.4. Population interactions – Parasitism, Commensalism and Mutualism
Ecosystem 14.2. Productivity
14.3. Decomposition
14.4. Energy flow -Food chain, Food web and Trophic levels
14.5. Ecological pyramids.
14.7. Nutrient cycling -Phosphorus cycle
Environmental issues 16.2. Water pollution and its control, BOD, Algal bloom and Eutrophication
16.6. Greenhouse effect and global warming
16.7. Ozone depletion in the stratosphere
16.9. Deforestation


Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Zoology

Name of the Chapter Focus Area
Human reproduction 3.1 Male reproductive system (Location of testes & its significance; Cells lining Seminiferous tubules & their function; Duct System)
3.2 The female reproductive system (Oviduct, Uterus, Significance of Hymen)
3.3 Gainetogenesis (Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis, Role of Hormones -FSH & LH in Spermatogenesis; Structure of Sperm )
3.4 Menstrual cycle (Hormones involved) 3.5 Fertilization and implantation (Site of fertilization; Morula; Structure of Blastocyst)
3.6 Pregnancy and embryonic development (Placenta, hCG, hPL, Relaxin )
3.7 Parturition & Lactation (Colostrum)
Reproductive health 4.1 Reproductive health problems and strategies (Amniocentesis)
4.2 Population explosion and birth control (IMR, MMR; Birth Control Measures – Natural, Barrier, IUD’s, Oral Contraceptives, Surgical methods.)
4.3 Medical Termination of Pregnancy (What is MTPjWhy MTP) 4.4 Sexually transmitted diseases (Examples of STD; Measures to avoid STD’s) 4.5 Infertility(Assisted Reproductive Technologies in detail)
Principles of inheritance and variation 5.1 Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance(TabIe 5.1 Contrasting Traits studied by Mendel in Pea
5.2 Inheritance of one gene (Allele, Genotype, Phenotype)
5.2.2.1 Incomplete dominance (Definition, Ratio & Cross only)
5.2.2.2 Co-dominance (Blood Grouping in Fable 5.3)
5.3.2 Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance (Reasons for selecting Drosophila as the experimental material by Morgan)
5.4.1 Sex determination in Humans
5.6.1 Pedigree analysis
5.6.2 Mendelian disorders (Sickle Cell Anaemia, Haemophilia)
5.6.3 Chromosomal disorders (Down’s Syndrome, Klinefelter’s Syndrome, Turner’s Syndrome)
Molecular basis of inheritance 6.1.1 Structure of polynucleotide chain (Salient Features of Double Helix structure of DNA; Central Dogma)
6.1.2 Packaging of DNA helix – (Structure of Nucleosome – Diagram & Explanation alone; Euchromatin; Heterochroniaiiu)
6.2 The Search For Genetic Material (Transforming Principle)
6.2.1 The Genetic Material is DNA (Hershev-Chase Experiment)
6.4.2 The Machinery and the Enzymes (DNA dependent DNA polymerase; Replication fork; DNA Ligase)
6.5.1 Transcription unit( Promoter, Terminator, Structural Gene)
6.5.2 Transcription unit & the Gene (Introns. Exons)
6.6 Genetic code – Salient Features
6.8.1 The Lac Operon
6.9 Human Genome Project(Expansion of HGP, BAC & YAC)
6.10 DNA fingerprinting (Steps; Application)
Evolution 7.1 Origin of life (Urey-Miller experiment)
7.3 What is the evidence of evolution? (Homologous organs & Analogue organs with eggs; Observation supporting natural selection – Moths in the unpolluted area and polluted areas in England)
7.7 Hardy Weinberg principle (Equation; 5 factors affecting Hardy Weinberg equilibrium)
7.9 Origin and Evolution of man (Names alone in sequential order up to Homo sapiens)
Human health and
disease
8.1 Common diseases in humans (Typhoid, Malaria)
8.2.1 Innate Immunity ( Four types of Barriers)
8.2.2 Acquired Immunity (Structure of an Antibody molecule Diagram)
8.3 AIDS (Transmission; Test for AIDS; Prevention)
8.4 Cancer(Benign tumour, Malignant Tumor, Treatment of cancer)
8.5.3 Effects of drug/alcohol abuse
Microbes in human welfare 10.1 Microbes in Household Products (LAB)
10.2.3 Chemicals enzymes and other bioactive molecules
10.5 Microbes as biocontrol agents – Bacillus thuringiensis, Trichoderma
Biodiversity and Conservation 15.1.2 (ii) Species- area relationship (graph and equation)
15.1.3 the importance of species diversity to the ecosystem (Rivet Popper Hypothesis)
15.1.4 Loss of biodiversity- (Causes of biodiversity losses/Evil Quartet)
15.2.2 How do we conserve biodiversity (In situ conservation, Ex-situ conservation)


Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Computer Science

Chapter Focus Area
1. Structures and Pointers Concept of structure and example, Defn of Pointer, Use of & and * operators, Static V/s dynamic memory allocation, new and delete operators
2. Concept of Object-Oriented Programming POP V/s OOP, five concepts of OOP
3. Data Structures and Operations Classification of data structures. Operations on data structures, Concept of the stack, queue (linear only) and linked list. Push and Pop operations with algorithms.
4. Web Technology Static and Dynamic web pages, Comparison of Client-side and Server-side scripts, Structure of HTML code, Container tags and empty tags, Common attributes of <BODY> tag, Use of important tags(Headings, <BR>, <P>, <HR>, text formatting tags, <MARQUEE>, <FONT>,<IMG>), Only the essential attributes need to be considered.
5. Web Designing using HTML List (Ordered, Unordered, Definition), <A> tag Ir4d HREF attribute. Definition of internal and external linking, Table tags, Listing and use of Input controls in Form, Coding questions may focus only on simple lists and simple tables.
6. Client-side Scripting using JavaScript <SCRIPT> tag, Data types, var keyword, Operators, Control structures and Built-in functions
7. Web Hosting Types of web hosting, FTP client software, Free hosting
8. Database Management System Advantages of the database, Components of DBMS, Types of users, RDBMS terminologies, Relational operations (Select, Project, Union, Intersection)
9. Structured Query Language SQL components, SQL data types, Constraints, Use of commands (DDL-CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE; DML – SELECT, DELETE, UPDATE with essential clauses only). SQL queries are to be avoided.
10. Server-side Scripting using PHP echo() V/s print, PHP data types, Operators and Control structures
11. Advances in Computing Serial V/s Parallel computing, Cloud computing and three services, Applications of computational intelligence – listing only
12. ICT and Society Applications of ICT – Education, Business, Governance. Cybercrimes against individuals.


Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two ( Commerce ) Focus Area

Business, as an academic discipline, can be interpreted as the study of business and product claims, such as the transfer of goods and services from the manufacturer to the end customer. The core subjects taught under the 12th class vocational curriculum include accounting, economics, business studies, statistics, mathematics and information skills.

Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Accountancy

Part  1- Accounting

  1. Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation                                                                                   
    Meaning and Characteristics of Not-for-Profit Organisation
    Accounting Records of Not-for-Profit Organisations
    Receipt and Payment Account
    Income and Expenditure Account
    The distinction between Income and Expenditure A/c and Receipt and Payment A/c
    Treatment of Subscription in the financial statements of Not for profit organisation                         
  2. Accounting for Partnership – Basic Concepts                                                                                
    Nature of partnership
    Partnership deed
    Provisions of Partnership Act Relevant for Accounting
    Maintenance of Capital Accounts of Partners
    The distinction between Fixed and Fluctuating Capital Accounts
    Profit & Loss Appropriation Account                                                                                                       
  3. Reconstitution of Partnership – Admission of a Partner                                                                                 
    Modes of Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm
    Admission of a New Partner
    New profit sharing ratio & Sacrificing ratio
    Goodwill – Factors Affecting the Value of Goodwill
    Methods of valuation of goodwill (Average Profit)
    Treatment of goodwill (When the new Partner brings goodwill in cash.)
    Adjustment for Accumulated Profits and Losses
    Revaluation of Assets and Reassessment of Liabilities
    Preparation of Revaluation account. Partners Capital Account & Balance sheet                                                                    
  4. Reconstitution of Partnership -Retirement & Death of a partner                                                                       
    New profit sharing ratio & Gaining ratio
    Adjustment for Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities
    Adjustment of Accumulated Profits and Losses
    Disposal of Amount Due to Retiring Partner
    Preparation Partner’s Loan Account
    Death of a partner – Calculation of amount due to the deceased partner                                                               
  5. Dissolution of Partnership Firm                                                                                                                
    Dissolution of Partnership
    Dissolution of a Firm
    The distinction between Dissolution of partnership and dissolution of firm
    Preparation of Realisation A/c

Part  II  Company Accounts and Analysis of Financial Statements

  1. Accounting for share capital                                                                                                                 
    Features and types of companies
    Share capital and its categories
    Issue of shares – basic journal entries
    Calls in arrears and calls in advance
    Issue of shares at par and at a premium
    Oversubscription of shares (Excluding pro-rata)
    Forfeiture and Re-issue of shares
                                                                                                                                                       
  2. Issue and redemption of debentures                                                                                                                                                  
    Meaning and types of debentures
    Difference between shares and debentures
    Issue of debentures for cash
                                                                                                                                                      
  3. Financial statements of a company                                                                                                                                                  
    Types of financial statements
    Balance sheet and P&L account
    Limitation of financial statements
                                                                                                                                                      
  4. Analysis of Financial statements                                                                                                                                                  
    Objectives of Analysis of Financial Statements
    Tools of Analysis of Financial Statements
    Comparative statements
    Common size statements
    Limitation of AFS
                                                                                                                                                      
  5. Accounting Ratios                                                                                                                                                  
    Meaning, advantages and limitations of ratio analysis
    Liquidity ratio (Current ratio Liquid ratio)
    Solvency ratio (Debt equity ratio and Proprietary ratio)
    Activity ratio (Inventory turn over and Working capital turn over ratio)
    Profitability ratio (Gross profit Ratio, Net Profit Ratio)
                                                                                                                                                      
  6. Cash flow statements                                                                                                                                                  
    Meaning, objectives and benefits of Cash flow statements
    Classification of activities for Cash flow statements
    Limitation of Cash flow statements

Part  III Computerized Accounting

  1. Overview of Computerised accounting system                                                                                                                                                  
    Features of CAS
    Components of CAS
    Grouping of Accounts
    Codification of Accounts
    Merits and Demerits of CAS.
                                                                                                                                                      
  2. Spread Sheet                                                                                                                                                  
    Features of LibreOffice Calc
    Components of LibreOffice Calc
    Spread Sheet Operations
    Cell references
    Functions (Date and Time, Statistical, Logical and Mathematical)                                                                                                                                                  
  3. Use of spreadsheet in Business Applications                                                                                                                                                  
    Payroll Accounting
    Asset Accounting                                                                                                                                                  
  4. Graphs and Charts for Business Data                                                                                                                                                  
    Column chart, Bar chart, Pie Chart, Doughnut chart
    Advantages of Graphs and Charts
  5. Accounting Software Package – GNUKhata                                                                                                                                                  
    Creation of organisation
    Ledger Creation
    Voucher entry                                                                                                                                                  
  6. Database Management System                                                                                                                                                  
    Components of DBMS
    Preparation of Table in design view

Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Business Studies

  1. Nature and significance of Management                                                                                                                                                  
    Features of management
    Nature of management
    Levels of management
    Co-ordination and elements                                                                                                                                                  
  2. Principles of management                                                                                                                                                  
    Fayol’s management principles
    Techniques of scientific management                                                                                                                                                  
  3. Business Environment                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
    Importance of environment
    Dimensions of environment
    Industrial Policy 1991
    Liberalisation, Privatisation, Globalisation                                                                                                                                                  
  4. Planning                                                                                                                                                  
    Features of planning
    Steps in planning
    Types of plans                                                                                                                                                  
  5. Organising                                                                                                                                                  
    Importance of organising
    Organisational structure and types
    Formal and Informal organisation
    Delegation and Decentralisation                                                                                                                                                  
  6. Staffing                                                                                                                                                  
    Steps in Staffing
    Sources of recruitment
    Selection Tests
    Methods of training                                                                                                                                                  
  7. Directing                                                                                                                                                  
    Elements of directing – Supervision, Motivation, Leadership, Communication
    Maslow’s need hierarchy theory
    Leadership – qualities of a good leader
    Communication – process
    Barriers of communication                                                                                                                                                  
  8. Controlling                                                                                                                                                  
    Steps in controlling
    Control by exception
    Span of control
    Techniques of controlling                                                                                                                                                  
  9. Financial Management                                                                                                                                                  
    Financial decisions
    Capital structure – Factors
    Factors determining fixed capital
    Factors determining working capital
  10. Capital Market                                                                                                                                                  
    Money market – instruments
    Capital market – instruments
    SEBI – Functions                                                                                                                                                  
  11. Marketing Management                                                                                                                                                  
    Marketing and selling
    Functions of marketing
    Marketing mix
    Pricing – Factors
    Promotion and advertising
    Sales promotion                                                                                                                                                  
  12. Consumer protection                                                                                                                                                  
    Rights of consumers
    Name of Acts for consumers
    Redressal Forums under CPA

Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Economics

PART  1 - Introductory Microeconomics

Chapter Focus Area
Chapter 1 Introduction 1 A SIMPLE ECONOMY
2 CENTRAL PROBLEMS OF AN ECONOMY
1.3 ORGANISATION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
1.3.1 The Centrally Planned Economy
1.3.2 The Market Economy
1.5 MICROECONOMICS AND MACROECONOMICS
Chapter 2 Theory of Consumer Behaviour 2.1 UTILITY
2.1.1 Cardinal Utility Analysis
2.1.2 Ordinal Utility Analysis
2.2 THE CONSUMER’S BUDGET
2.2.1 Budget Set and Budget Line
2.3 OPTIMAL CHOICE OF THE CONSUMER
2.4 DEMAND
2.4.1 Demand Curve and the Law of Demand
2.4.3 Normal and Inferior Goods
2.4.4 Substitutes and Complements
Chapter 3 Production and costs 3.1 PRODUCTION FUNCTION
3.2 THE SHORT-RUN AND THE LONG RUN
3.3 TOTAL PRODUCT, AVERAGE PRODUCT AND MARGINAL PRODUCT
3.4 THE LAW OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL PRODUCT AND THE LAW OF VARIABLE PROPORTIONS
3.7 COSTS
3.7.1 Short-Run Costs
Chapter 4 The Theory of the Firm under Perfect Competition 4.1 PERFECT COMPETITION: DEFINING FEATURES
4.2 REVENUE
Chapter 5 Market Equilibrium 5.1 EQUILIBRIUM, EXCESS DEMAND, EXCESS SUPPLY
5.2 APPLICATIONS
Chapter 6 Non-competitive Markets 6.1 SIMPLE MONOPOLY IN THE COMMODITY MARKET


PART  II - Introductory Microeconomics


Chapter Topics to be focused
Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 EMERGENCE OF MACROECONOMICS
Chapter 2 National Income accounting 2.1 SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF MACROECONOMICS
2.2.1 The Product or Value Added Method
2.2.2 Expenditure Method
2.2.3 Income Method
2.2 CIRCULAR FLOW OF INCOME AND METHODS OF CALCULATING NATIONAL INCOME
Chapter 3 Money and banking 3.1 FUNCTIONS OF MONEY
3.2 DEMAND FOR MONEY AND SUPPLY OF MONEY
3.2.1. Demand for Money
3.2.2. Supply of Money
Chapter. 4 Determination of Income and employment 4.1 AGGREGATE DEMAND AND ITS COMPONENTS
4.1.1. Consumption
4.1.2. Investment
4.2 DETERMINATION OF INCOME IN TWO-SECTOR MODEL
Chapter 5 Government Budget and the Economy 5.1 GOVERNMENT BUDGET — MEANING AND ITS COMPONENTS
5.1.1 Objectives of Government Budget
5.1.2 Classification of Receipts
5.1.3. Classification of Expenditure
5.2 BALANCED, SURPLUS AND DEFICIT BUDGET
Chapter 6 Open Economy 6.1 THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
6.1.1 Current Account
6.1.2 Capital Account


Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Computer Application (Commerce)

Chapter Focus Area
1. Review of C++ Programming Tokens, Data types, Control statements. Simple programs may be asked.
2. Arrays Syntax to declare an array, Accessing of elements, String handling, I/O functions to handle strings. No programs required
3. Functions Built-in functions (Name and use only), Call by value and Call by reference method. No programs required
4. Web Technology Static and Dynamic web pages, Comparison of Client-side and Server-side scripts, Structure of HTML code, Container tags and empty tags, Common attributes of <BODY> tag, Use of important tags(Headings, <BR>, <P>, <HR>, text formatting tags, <MARQUEE>, <FONT>,<IMG>), Only the essential attributes need to be considered.
5. Web Designing using HTML List (Ordered, Unordered, Definition), <A> tag and HREF attribute, Definition of internal and external linking, Table tags, Listing and use of Input controls in Form, Coding questions may focus only on simple lists and simple tables.
6. Client-side Scripting using JavaScript <SCRIPT> tag, Data types, var keyword, Operators, Control structures and Built-in functions
7. Web Hosting Types of web hosting, FTP client software, Free hosting
8. Database Management System Advantages of the database, Components of DBMS, Types of users, RDBMS terminologies, Relational operations (Select, Project, Union, Intersection)
9. Structured Query Language SQL components, SQL data types. Constraints, Use of commands (DDL-CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE; DML – SELECT, DELETE, UPDATE with essential clauses only). SQL queries are to be avoided.
10. Enterprise Resource Planning Functional units of ERP(listing only), Examples for ERP packages, Benefits of ERP.
11. Trends and Issues in ICT Mobile communication services, Short notes on mobile OS, Cybercrimes against individuals.


Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Statistics

  1. Meaning of Correlation,                                                                                                                                                  
    Types of Correlation – Positive, Negative, Zero. Methods of studying Correlation – Scatter diagram, coefficient of correlation. Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation, Spearman’s Rank correlation ( non repeated only).                                                                                                                                                 
  2. Regression Analysis                                                                                                                                                 
    Concept of Regression, Regression Lines, Equation of Regression lines. Properties of regression coefficients. Identification of Regression Lines.                                                                                                                                                 
  3. Elementary Calculus                                                                                                                                                 
    First derivative and Second derivative of simple linear functions. Maxima and Minima (problems). Integration of simple functions. Definite integrals                                                                                                                                                 
  4. Random Variables                                                                                                                                                 
    Random Variables- Discrete and Continuous. Discrete Random Variables -Probability mass function (pmf), Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF). Mean. Variance and their properties. Continuous Random Variables – Probability density function (pdf), problems based on properties of pdf.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
  5. Discrete Probability Distributions                                                                                                                                                 
    Binomial Distribution-pmf. mean and variance, problems
    Poisson Distribution- pmf, mean and variance, problems                                                                                                                                                 
  6. Normal distribution                                                                                                                                                 
    Normal Probability Density function, Mean and variance, Normal curve and its properties, Standard Normal Distribution, Z-transformation and Z-Score, Standard Normal Tables, simple problems based on std Normal tables.                                                                                                                                                 
  7. Sampling Distributions                                                                                                                                                 
    Parameter and Statistic. Sampling Distribution. Determination means of the sample mean (SRSWOR).                                                                                                                                                 
  8. Estimation of parameters                                                                                                                                                 
    Statistical inference, Estimation of Parameters, Point Estimation, Properties of a Good Estimator -Unbiasedness. Consistency, Sufficiency and Efficiency.                                                                                                                                                 
  9. Testing of Hypothesis                                                                                                                                                 
    Statistical Hypothesis. Test statistic and Critical Region.Type I and Type II Errors, Level of Significance and Power of Test, Test for significance of Single Mean ( large sample only).                                                                                                                                                 
  10. Analysis of Variance                                                                                                                                                 
    Causes of variations. Assumptions underlying ANOVA, One-way classification by using ANOVA Table.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
  11. Statistical Quality Control                                                                                                                                                 
    Meaning of Quality, Causes of variations. Variable Control Charts (xchart only)                                                                                                                                                 
  12. Time Series Analysis                                                                                                                                                 
    Components of Time series. Trend analysis- Method of semi averages, moving averages.                                                                                                                                                 
  13. Index Numbers                                                                                                                                                 
    Types of Index numbers- Simple Index Number (Simple AM), Simple Aggregate Method. Weighted Index number ( Laspayre’s, Paasche’s, Fisher’s Index Numbers). Uses of Index Numbers.

Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two ( Humanities ) Focus Area

Plus Two Humanity Chapter-wise Focusing Area Notes PDF and Highlights for Class XII are designed by professional authors from the latest editions of SCERT books to score good marks in board exams. SCERT Plus Two Humanities Focus Area Notes has all humanities chapters. Here we recommend reading SCERT Humanities Tips Class 12. SCERT Solutions for Class 12 Humanities.


Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - History

Name of the Themes Focus Area
Bricks, Beads and Bones Subsistence Strategies – Mohenjodaro – A planned urban centre – Social differences – Craft production – Procuring materials – Seals, script and weights – Decline
Kings, Fanners and Towns Rise of Magadha – Mauryan empire – New notions of kingship – Towns and trade – Limitations of inscriptional evidence
Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Sacrifices and debate – Buddha – Mahavira – Stupas – Mahayana Buddhism.
Through the Eyes of Travellers Al-Biruni – Ibn Battuta – Francois Bernier
An Imperial Capital – Vijayanagara Capital and its environs – Royal Centre – Sacred Centre
Rebels and the Raj Leaders and followers – Rumours and prophecies – Images of the revolt
Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Early struggles – Non-co-operation – Salt Satyagraha – Quit India
Kerala Towards Modernity Early resistance – Social reform – Struggle for a Democratic Society

Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Political Science

Name of the Chapters Focus Area
Challenges of Nation Building 1. Challenges for the new Nation
2. Three Challenges
3. Partition – process and consequences
4. Integration of Princely States
5. Reorganization of States
Era of One-PartyDominance 1. Challenges of Building Democracy
2. Congress Dominance in the first three general elections
3. Nature of Congress Dominance
4. Congress as Social and Ideological coalition
5. Opposition Parties – Socialist Party, Communist Party of India, Swatantra Party, Bharatiya Jana Sangh
India’s External Relations 1. Policy of Non-Alignment – Nehru’s Role, Distance from two blocs, Afro Asian Unity
2. Peace and Conflict with China
3. Wars and Peace w with Pakistan
4. India’s Nuclear Policy
The Crisis of Democratic Order 1. Background to Emergency
Economic Context
Gujarat and Bihar Movements
Conflict with Judiciary
Declaration of Emergency
2. Consequences of Emergency
3. Controversies regarding emergency – What happened during an emergency?
4. Lessons of Emergency
5. Loksabha Elections 1977 – Janata Government
Rise of Popular Movements 1. Chipko Movement
2. Dalit Panthers
3. Bharathia Kisan Union
4. Anti–Arrack Movement
5. Narmada Bachao Aandolan
6. Lessons of Popular Movements
Regional Aspirations 1. Jammu and Kashmir
2. Punjab
3. The North East
4. Dravidian Movement
5. Lessons of Regional Aspirations
End of Bipolarity 1. Soviet System
2. Why did the Soviet System disintegrate?
3. Consequences of disintegration
4. Shock Therapy – Consequences

Kerala Higher Secondary Plus Two Focus Area - Computer Application (Humanities)

Chapter Focus Area
1. Introduction to Publishing DTP Software, Elements of design. Principles of design. Electronic publishing(Web-based. Digital distribution)
2. Introduction to Word Processors Features of a word processor, Libre Office Writer IDE Components, Short-cut key$(New, Save, Open, cut, copy, paste, undo, print), Navigation keys, Header and Footer, comparison of cut-paste and copy-paste, Drop Caps, Indents- Types only, Page orientation-Portrait, Landscape
3. Creating Professional Documents Tables(Creating a table. Borders to tables, Managing tables), Inserting graphics(Adding an image, Using drawing tools, Inserting charts), Inserting page borders. Inserting watermarks, Converting text to a table, Splitting text into columns, Mail merge( Definition and Steps only)
4. Web Technology Static and Dynamic web pages, Comparison of Client-side and Server-side scripts, Structure of HTML code, Container tags and eC? pty tags, Common attributes of <BODY> tag, Use of important tags(<P>,<BR>, Heading Tags, text formatting tags,<MARQUEE>,<FONT>,<IMG>) covered in this chapter, Only the essential attributes need to be considered.
5. Web Designing using HTML List (Ordered, Unordered and Definition), <A> tag and HREF attribute, Definition of internal and external linking, ‘fable tags, Coding questions may focus only on simple lists and tables.
6. Cascading Style Sheet Advantages of using CSS, Ways to add CSS to a web page(names only-Internal style sheet, External style sheet. Inline style)
7. Web Hosting Types of web hosting, FTP client software, Free hosting
8. Database Management System Advantages of DBMS, Components of DBMS, Users of Database, RDBMS terminologies
9. Structured Query Language SQL components, SQL data types, Use of commands (DDL- CREATE TABLE, DROP FABLE, DML- INSERT, SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE-with essential clauses only).SQL queries arc to be avoided.
10. Trends and Issues in ICT Mobile communication services. Mobile Operating systems, Cybercrimes against Individuals

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