Plus One Zoology Solution Chapter1 The Living World


Ncert plus one Zoology solutions chapter 1 The Living World on keralanotes.com is free to download for class 11 in pdf format. Also Here you can get NCERT class 11th solutions, physics, chemistry books for free. Download board exam question papers in PDF, solve & find pdf solutions for your board exams preparation.

The living world is the first chapter of earth science which covers subjects like Diversity of organisms, diversity in the world, The origin of life, Types and classification of organisms, Habitats and biomes. This chapter also gives a brief idea about the organisms living in different parts of the world.


Board SCERT, Kerala
Text Book NCERT Based
Class Plus One
Subject ZoologyTextbook Solution
Chapter Chapter 1
Chapter Name The Living World
Category Plus One Kerala


Kerala Syllabus Plus Two Zoology Textbook Solution Chapter  1 The Living World

Plus Two Textbook Solutions 



Chapter  1  The Living World Textbook Solution

    Question 1.
    Why are living organisms classified?
    Solution:
    Living organisms are classified because :
    (i) there are millions of organisms on the earth, which need a proper system of classification for identification.
    (ii) a number of new organisms are discovered each year. They require a particular system to be identified and to find out their correct position in a group.

    Question 2.
    Why are the classification systems changing every now and then?
    Solution:
    Evolution is the major factor responsible for the change in classification systems. Since, evolution still continues, so many different species of plants and animals are added in the already existed biodiversity. These newly discovered plant and animal specimens are then identified, classified and named according to the already existing classification systems. Due to evolution, animal and plant species keep on changing, so necessary changes in the already existed classification systems are necessary to place every newly discovered plant and animal in their respective ranks.

    Question 3.
    What different criteria would you choose to classify people that you meet often?
    Solution:
    The different scientific criteria to classify people that we meet often would be :
    (i) Nomenclature:
    It is the science of providing distinct and proper names to organisms. It is the determination of the correct name
    as per established universal practices and rules.
    (ii) Classification:
    It is the arrangement of organisms into categories based on systematic planning. In classification various
    categories used are class, order, family, genus and species.
    (iii) Identification:
    It is the determination of the correct name and place of an organism. Identification is used to tell that a particular
    species is similar to another organism of known identity. This includes assigning an organism to a particular
    taxonomic group. The same criteria can be applied to the people we meet daily. We can identify them will their names classify them according to their living areas, profession, etc.

    Question 4.
    What do we learn from the identification of individuals and populations?
    Solution:
    Identification of individuals and population categorized it into a species. Each species has unique characteristic features. On the basis of these features, it can be distinguished from other closely related species, e. g.,
    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 The Living World image 1

    Question 5.
    Given below is the scientific name of Mango. Identify the correctly written name.

    1. Mangifera Indica
    2. Mangifera indica.

    Solution:
    2.  Mangifera indica (the name of species can never begin with a capital letter).

    Question 6.
    Define a taxon. Give some examples of taxa at different hierarchical levels.
    Solution:
    A taxon is a grouping of organisms of any level in hierarchical classification, which is based on some common characteristics, e.g., insects represent a class of phylum – Arthropoda. All the insects possess common
    characters of three pairs of jointed legs. The term ‘taxon’ was introduced by ICBN in 1956. Examples of taxa are kingdom, phylum or division, class, order, family, genus and species. These taxa form a taxonomic hierarchy, e.g.,
    taxa for human :

    PhylumChordata
    ClassMammalia
    OrderPrimate
    FamilyHominidae
    GenusHomo
    Speciessapiens

    Question 7.
    Can you identify the correct sequence of taxonomical categories?
    (a) Species ➜ Order ➜ Phylum ➜ Kingdom
    (b) Genus ➜ Species ➜ Order ➜ Kingdom
    (c) Species ➜ Genus ➜ Order ➜ Phylum
    Solution:
    The correct sequence of taxonomical categories is as follows :
    (c) Species ➜ Genus ➜ Order ➜ Phylum

    Question 8.
    Try to collect all the currently accepted meanings for the word ‘species’. Discuss with your teacher the
    meanings of species in the case of higher plants and animals on one hand, and bacteria on the other hand.
    Solution:
    A group of individual organisms with fundamental similarities is called species. It can be distinguished from other closely related species on the basis of distinct morphological differences. In the case of higher plants and animals, one genus may have one or more than one species, e.g.,

    Panthera leo (lion) and Panthera tigris (tiger). In this example, Panthera is the genus, which includes Leo (lion)
    and Tigris (tiger) as species. In the case of bacteria, different categories are present on the basis of shape.
    These are spherical, coccus, rod-shaped, comma and spiral-shaped. Thus, the meaning of species in
    the case of higher organisms and bacteria are different.

    Question 9.
    Define and understand the following terms :
    (i) Phylum
    (ii) Class
    (iii) Family
    (iv) Order
    (v) Genus.
    Solution:
    (i) Phylum:
    Phylum comes next to Kingdom in the taxonomical hierarchy. All broad characteristics of an animal or plant are defined in a phylum. For example, all chordates have a notochord and gill at some stage of the life cycle. Similarly, all arthropods have jointed legs made of chitin.

    (ii) Class:
    The category class includes related orders. It is higher than order and lower than phylum. For example, class – Mammalia has order – Carnivora, Primata, etc.

    (iii) Family:
    It is the category higher than genus and lower than order, which has one or more related genera having some common features. For example, Felidae, Canidae, etc.

    (iv) Order:
    Order further zeroes down on characteristics and includes related genus. For example, humans and monkeys belong to the order primates. Both humans and monkeys can use their hands to manipulate objects and can walk on their hind legs.

    (v) Genus:
    It comprises a group of related species which has more characters in common in comparison to species of other genera. We can say that genera are aggregates of closely related species. For example, potato, tomato and brinjal are three different species but all belong to the genus Solanum. Lion (Panthera leo), leopard (P. pardus) and tiger (P. Tigris) with several common features, are all species of the genus Panthera. This genus differs from another genus Felis which includes cats.

    Question 10.
    How is a key helpful in the identification and classification of an organism?
    Solution:
    Key is a device (scheme) of diagnostic alternate (contrasting) characters, which provide an easy means for the identification of the unknown organism. The keys are taxonomic literature based on the contrasting characters
    generally a pair called a couplet. Each statement in the key is called a lead. Separate taxonomic keys are required
    for each taxonomic category such as family, genus and species for identification purposes. Being analytical in nature, two types of keys are commonly used-indented key and bracketed key.
    (i) Indented key :
    provides a sequence of choice between two or more statements of characters of species. The user has to make the correct choice
    for identification.

    (ii) Bracketed key :
    (1) are used for contrasting characters like an indented key but they are not repeated by intervening sub-dividing character and each character is given a number in brackets.

    Key is an artificial analytic device having a list of statements with a dichotomic table of alternate characteristics. Taxonomic
    keys are aids for the rapid identification of unknown plants and animals based on
    their similarities and dissimilarities. Keys are primarily based on stable and reliable characters. The keys are helpful in a faster preliminary identification which can be backed up by confirmation through comparison with a detailed description of the taxon provisionally identified. Separate taxonomic keys are used for each taxonomic category like Family, Genus and Species.

    Question 11.
    Illustrate the taxonomical hierarchy with suitable examples of a plant and an animal.
    Solution:
    Taxonomical hierarchy is the system of arrangement of taxonomic categories in a descending order depending
    upon their relative dimensions. It was introduced by Linnaeus (1751) and is, therefore, also called the Linnaeus hierarchy. Each category referred to as a unit of classification commonly called a taxon (pi. taxa), e.g., taxonomic categories and hierarchy can be illustrated by a group of organisms, i.e., insects. The common features of insects are ‘three pair of jointed legs. It means insects are recognisable objects which can be classified, so given a rank or category.

    Category further denotes a rank. Each rank or taxon represents a unit of classification taxonomic studies of all plants and animals led to the development of common categories such as kingdom, phylum or division (for plants), class, order, family, genus and species. All organisms, including those in the plant and animal, kingdoms have ‘species’ as the lowest category.

    To place an organism in various categories is to have the knowledge of the characters of an individual or group of organism. This helps to identify similarities and dissimilarities among the individual of the same kind of organisms
    as well as of other kinds of organism. Some organisms with their taxonomical categories are given in following
    table :
    Taxonomical Hierarchy :
    NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 The Living World image 2
    Organisms with their Taxonomic Categories :

    The arrangement of various taxa in hierarchical order is called taxonomic hierarchy. The hierarchy indicates the various levels of kinship. The number of similar characters of categories decreases from lowest rank to highest rank. The hierarchical system of classification was introduced by Linnaeus.
    The hierarchy of major categories is:
    Species —►Genus-►Family —► Order—► Class
    Kingdom -4— Phylum or Division
    Increasing specificity – ► Decreasing specificity
    Classification of a plant (Wheat):
    Kingdom  –  Plantae
    Division   –  Angiospermae
    Class         –  Monocotyledonae
    Order        –  Poales
    Family      –  Poaceae
    Genus       – Triticum
    Species     –  aestivum
    Classification of an animal (Housefly):
    Kingdom  –   Animalia
    Phylum    –   Chordata
    Class        –   Insecta
    Order       –   Diptera
    Family     –  Muscidae
    Genus      –   Musca
    Species    –   Domestica



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